The dawn and development of neuropsychology in Japan during the last 150 years

Toshihiko HAMANAKA
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Nagoya City University, Nagoya; and Rehabilitation and Care Facility for the Elderly, Daiyukai Medical Foundation, Dosha, Japan

It is well known that the modern neuropsychology began with a hypothesis concerning the cerebral localization based upon craniological ideas (1810-19) by F.J. Gall (1758-1828) which lead to the pioneering works to aphasiology by P. Broca (1861), J.M. Charcot (1863-88) in France, being followed by C. Wernicke (1874-86) with his Breslau school in Germany and by J.H. Jackson (1879) in Great Britain. This paper intends to elucidate the dawn and development of neuropsychology in the second half of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century, taking into consideration how a series of important contributions in Europe and America were assimilated by early Japanese scientists who had to introduce new European trends neuropsychology with German medical teachers (Th. Hoffmann, E. Baelz, etc.) since the Meiji Imperial Restoration (1868) coinciding with internationalization and cultural transformation of Japan after long periods dominated by Chinese medicine since the Antiquity and Dutch medicine since ca. 250 years. H. Miyake (1878/94) probably the first who introduced such neuropsychological terminology as "Broca's & Wernicke's aphasia" (with Japanese translation), while D. Onishi (1893) proposed his own aphasiological schema revising Lichtheim-Wernicke's (1885/86) one in the same year when the first case report of "cortical motor aphasia" by E. Watanabe (1893) was published. The first Japanese textbook of neurology by H. Kawahara (1897) discussed in detail a series of such other aphasiological concepts as "paraphasia, agraphia, alexia, optic aphasia, asymbolia, asemia" as well, mentioning even the problem of hemispheric laterality in the context of a personally observed case of crossed aphasia in a dextral. The problem of "phrenology" was treated by T. Inoue (1881), S. Sato (1890) and R. Mori (1900). The foundation of "Japanese Society of Neurology [& Psychiatry]" with its official organ [Psychiatria et] Neurologia Japonica (1902) gave a further scientific impact to the following generation who was so successful as to publish a number of important contribution to the problems concerning the function of corpus callosum (S. Imamura 1903: Pfluegers Arch.) and the specific characteristics of aphasia in Japanese language (T. Asayama 1912/14: Deutsches Archiv; T. Imura 1943) and the first monograph treating "Apraxia" (H. Akimoto 1939). These basic efforts lead to the first comprehensive text of neuropsychology by H. Ohashi (1960) after the 2. World War, who later founded the Japan Society of Neuropsychology (1977) with other colleagues.

Session VIII -- Poster Session 2
Saturday, 16 June 2001, 9:00 - 9:30 am

Sixth Annual Meeting of the International Society for the History of the Neurosciences (ISHN) and
Eighth Meeting of the European Club for the History of Neurology (ECHN)

Cologne, Germany