Neuroscience News Fall 2003

Published by the UCLA Brain Research Institute
Fall, 2003

Volume 12, No. 3

Table of Contents

By Jeanine Moreno

Allen Ardestani graduated from UCLA with a Bachelor of Science degree in neuroscience. He is currently researching behavior and cognition as a Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) student.

Valerie Carr received a B.S. degree in biological psychology from The College of William & Mary. Her current research interests are neuroimaging, learning and memory, aging, and neurodegeneration.

Kristi Clark obtained an A.B. degree in chemistry, and philosophy from Washington University. She is interested in imaging (fMRI, DTI, PET, etc), brain anatomy (especially connectivity studies), white matter diseases, and computational neuroscience.

Christine Dy graduated from UC Berkeley and received a Bachelor of Arts degree in cognitive science. Christine is interested in neurodegenerative diseases.
Brett Franchini received a B.S. degree in neuroscience from UCLA. His research interests include modeling dynamic networks (hippocampal, rhythmic, etc.) molecular mechanisms of learning and memory, and neural degeneration and repair (disease or trauma).

Dylan Hirsch-Shell obtained a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering and computer science from MIT. Dylan’s research interests lie in computational models of cognition, brain-computer interfaces, neural prosthetics, and neural basis of learning.

Joshua Johansen graduated from the University of Colorado and received a B.A. degree in psychology. He is interested in learning and memory at the behavioral, electrophysiological and molecular levels.

Michael Kane received a B.S. degree in psychology from Pennsylvania State University. Michael is interested in neurogenetics.

Estreya Kapuya graduated from UCLA with a Bachelor of Science degree in anthropology. She is interested in learning and memory.

Andrew Kuhlman obtained a Bachelor of Science degree in neuroscience and biology from Brandeis University. Andrew’s research interests include neurodegenerative diseases and genetics.

Esther Melamed received a Bachelor of Science degree in neuroscience and biology from UCLA. She is currently a Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) student whose research interests are neuroendocrinology, and sex differences in diseases.

Kristin Stamm graduated from Duke University with a Bachelor of Science degree in psychology. Kristin is interested in functional imaging and cognition (learning, memory, language development, etc).

Adam Welday received a Bachelor of Science degree in molecular & cell biology from UC Berkeley. His research interests are in cellular physiology, learning and memory, and computer modeling.

The Brain Research Institute welcomes these new students to the Interdepartmental Graduate Program for Neuroscience.

The Brain Research Institute welcomes its newest members, Dr. Thomas Minor, Associate Professor of Psychology, Dr. Ladan Shams, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Dr. Elizabeth Sowell, Assistant Professor of Neurology, Dr. Francis Steen, Assistant Professor of Communication Studies/ Speech, Dr. Hui Sun, Assistant Professor of Physiology, and Ophthalmology, Dr. Joshua Trachtenberg, Assistant Professor of Neurobiology, Dr. Roger Woods, Associate Professor of Neurology, and Dr. Alan Yuille, Professor of Statistics, and Psychology.

Thomas Minor received a Ph.D. degree in psychobiology from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1981. He was the recipient of a Killam Postdoctoral Fellowship and continued his studies in the Departments of Psychology and Pharmacology at Dalhousie University. In 1982, Dr. Minor was awarded a two-year postdoctoral fellowship from the National Institute of Mental Health, and pursued his investigations on behavioral and biochemical mediation of “learned helplessness” in the Department of Psychology at the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this time he was also a research consultant to Pharmuka Laboratories in France. In 1984, Dr. Minor joined UCLA where he is currently an Associate Professor of Psychology. 

Dr. Minor’s area of research is the psychobiology of anxiety and depression. “Research in the laboratory is generally concerned with the behavioral and physiological consequences of psychological trauma. We are particularly interested in modeling aspects of anxiety and depression that result from traumatic events in rodent species. Recent studies have linked the transition from an anxious/agitated state to one of behavioral depression following traumatic stress in rats to a disruption of brain metabolic homeostasis and a consequent increase in brain adenosine signaling. Traumatic stress also can provoke a long-term increase in brain interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) concentrations. This cytokine appears to mediate behavioral depression (and sickness behavior) by enhancing adenosine signaling, particularly via the activation of brain adenosine A2A receptors. Because the striatum is richly populated by adenosine A2A receptors, and because the striatum is crucial for the integration of motivation and goal-oriented behavior, we are currently examining the role of striatal A2A receptor activation in the uncoupling of motivation and behavior in behavioral depression, sickness behavior, and conservation-withdrawal.”

Ladan Shams received a Ph.D. degree in computer science from the University of Southern California in 1999. Upon completion of her degree she received a postdoctoral scholarship from the Division of Biology at the California Institute of Technology, and was subsequently appointed as a Senior Research Fellow, then Visiting Associate, at CalTech. Dr. Shams joined the Department of Psychology at UCLA in 2003. 

Dr. Shams research focuses on visual perception and multisensory integration. “At present, my research is mainly concerned with the question of how information is integrated from multiple sensory modalities into a coherent percept of the world, with a special interest in the question of how visual perception is affected by other sensory modalities. Perception has traditionally been viewed as a modular function with different sensory modalities operating as separate and independent modules. My findings, on the other hand, have been among those that have started a shift towards an integrated and interactive paradigm of sensory processing. My research tackles the question of multisensory integration at various levels. I have been exploring the phenomenology of cross-modal interactions using behavioral studies, examining the brain circuitry involved in these interactions using event-related brain potentials, as well as, functional neuroimaging, and probing the computational principles underlying mutlisensory integration using statistical modeling.”

Elizabeth Sowell was a graduate student in the University of California, San Diego and San Diego State University Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology (Neuropsychology). She received a Ph.D. degree from this program in 1997. During the course of her studies, she also completed a year-long clinical internship in neuropsychology at the University of Florida, Gainesville. Dr. Sowell completed her postdoctoral training in the Laboratory of NeuroImaging, Department of Neurology, and the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, at UCLA. In 2000, Dr. Sowell was appointed as an Assistant Professor of Neurology. 
Dr. Sowell is interested in developmental neuroimaging. “My research focuses on the assessment of brain structural and functional changes during normal and abnormal development. I am actively involved in the conceptual development of new structural Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) analysis tools through the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, and am currently applying them in collaborative studies of normally developing children, adolescents and young adults, and children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, dyslexia, Tourette syndrome, ADHD, and obsessive compulsive disorder. Additionally, I will be pursuing new studies using a combination of functional and structural MRI in both normally developing children and adolescents, and in children with prenatal exposure to alcohol or methamphetamine.”

Francis Steen received a Ph.D. degree from the University of California, Santa Barbara. He joined UCLA as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Speech/Communication Studies in 2001.

Dr. Steen studies evolved mechanisms for simulation learning. “My research is focused on discovering and modeling the cognitive mechanisms that motivate and make possible certain types of learning. I examine behaviors that are experienced as intrinsically rewarding, yet appear to be structured to allow the individual to acquire highly specialized information-based skills. While these skills were plausibly vital for survival in our evolutionary past, some of them -- such as the ability to detect and escape predators -- are no longer very relevant; others -- such as the capacity to attribute accurate mental states to others -- remain crucial. Typically, the individual is not aware of any biological function of the activity, but engages in it for its own sake.
My current research includes studies of playful interactions between parents and infants, and a long-standing field study to document chase play and pretend play among preschool children. To determine children's conceptions of monsters, I am developing an interactive computer program for an experimental project. I am also running a pilot to study people's responses to fiction-based television entertainment. Finally, I am analyzing the results of a collaborative study aimed at developing models of people's response to representational art. What characterizes most of these intrinsically rewarding activities is that they involve some kind of behavioral or mental simulation. I argue that there are complex design problems associated with building a learning system based on simulations, and that natural selection in this functional domain resulted in cognitive mechanisms that play a pivotal role in the generation and transmission of culture. I am interested in investigating the neurological bases for the types of cognitive processes I am modeling, and look forward to working with others at the BRI.”

Hui Sun received a Ph.D. degree in molecular biology and genetics from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and completed a one-year postdoctoral fellowship there in 1999. Four the next four years, Dr. Sun served as an Associate at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Dr. Sun joined UCLA as an Assistant Professor of Physiology, and Ophthalmology, in 2003.

Investigating photoreceptor biogenesis and degeneration, and light and circadian control of photoreceptor function, Dr. Sun devotes most of his time to his research. “The first step in vision is the conversion of light signals to electrical signals. Photoreceptor cells are the light sensors in the retina that perform this first step in vision. My lab is interested in the biogenesis of photoreceptor cells and how light and circadian clocks regulate their functions. To efficiently capture photons, vertebrate photoreceptor cells evolved a specialized membrane structure called the outer segment. The outer segment is loaded with signal transduction proteins and consists of stacks of membrane discs. We are interested in the construction of this complex structure. Specifically, we are studying the concerted processes of generating distinct membrane domains and transporting phototransduction proteins to their precise destinations. The vertebrate photoreceptor cell has an intrinsic circadian clock that is independent of the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Guided by light, the photoreceptor clock orchestrates many cellular events. We would like to understand the pathway that integrates the light signal into the clock. At what point does visual transduction diverge from circadian phototransduction in the photoreceptor cell? Do visual pigments, the photon-capturing proteins, sense light both for visual perception and for circadian rhythm? The primary methods used in my lab include transgenic Xenopus, biochemical purification, and expression cloning. We chose Xenopus as the in vivo model because of the unusually large size of its photoreceptor cells and its rapid eye development. Moreover, transgenic Xenopus can be made by a technique involving sperm nuclear transplantation into unfertilized eggs. This method allows rapid production of transgenic animals.”

Joshua Trachtenberg received a Ph.D. degree in physiology/development from the University of Texas, Austin, in 1997. He then completed a postdoctoral fellowship at UCSF in the laboratory of Dr. Michael Stryker, followed by postdoctoral training with Dr. Karel Svoboda at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York. Dr. Trachtenberg joined UCLA’s Department of Neurobiology in 2003.

Dr. Trachtenberg is interested in understanding the mechanisms by which sensory experience influences the structure and function of neural circuits in the developing and adult cerebral cortex. Long-lasting changes in these circuits are thought to be the cellular basis of learning and memory. “My laboratory studies synaptic connections and experience-dependent changes in their organization in the intact, living brain using 2-photon laser scanning microscopy to image cortical neurons in mice expressing a green fluorescent protein transgene in only a small fraction of pyramidal neurons. How changes in synaptic organization influence the physiology of the neural circuits they comprise is studied using intrinsic signal optical imaging. These techniques are non-invasive and are used to follow the same neurons in the same animals for days to months.”

Roger Woods received an M.D. degree from Harvard Medical School in 1984. He completed a medical internship, and a residency in internal medicine at the University of Washington, Affiliated Hospitals, and a second residency in neurology at UCLA. From 1991 to 1993, Dr. Woods was a Fellow in Neuroscience Imaging in the Division of Nuclear Medicine, in the Departments of Radiological Sciences, and Neurology. Dr. Woods is currently an Associate Professor of Neurology. 
Research investigations focus on structural and functional brain imaging. Describing his work, Dr. Woods states, “I am involved in a number of projects involving imaging of the human brain, including the Brain Mapping International Consortium for Brain Imaging, and the Laboratory of NeuroImaging (LONI) Resource. These projects focus on the human brain in health and disease with a strong interest in genetic contributions to brain variability. Much of my efforts focus on development of post-processing methods including image registration and statistical analysis.”

Alan Yuille received a Ph.D. degree in applied mathematics and theoretical physics from Cambridge University, England in 1981. He was the recipient of a year-long postdoctoral fellowship from N.A.T.O., and studied at the University of Texas at Austin, and the University of California, Santa Barbara. He was then appointed as a research visiting scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Four years later, Dr. Yuille moved to Harvard University, and over the next 9 years, served as a research associate, assistant professor, and associate professor in the Department of Computer Science. In 1995, Dr. Woods moved to the Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute where he stayed until joining UCLA in 2002 as a professor in the Department of Statistics, and the Department of Psychology.

Dr. Yuille ‘s research “formalizes vision as Bayesian inference. This involves designing mathematical models for visual tasks, implementing the models on computers, and testing them on natural images. For example, recent work involves segmenting images, detecting faces, and detecting and reading text. These models can also be used as Ideal Observer models to evaluate human observer performance in psychophysics experiments. They also suggest neuronal architectures and network models.”

The Brain Research Institute is happy to welcome its newest members.


We have been saddened by the deaths of our friends and colleagues during the past year. We have written and collected some reflections on the lives of Herb Weiner, Don Lindsley, Louise Marshall, and Gaylord Ellison.

Herbert Weiner, whose pioneering research into mind-body connections contributed to the rise of psychosomatic medicine as a distinct field, died at his Encino home, November 12, 2002. He was 81.

A psychiatrist who taught for two decades at UCLA, Weiner had an international reputation as a leading researcher in the field.

He was the author of two books, "Psychobiology and Human Disease" (1977) and "Perturbing the Organism: The Biology of Stressful Experience" (1992), and he co-wrote or edited 20 others. He also was the editor of a leading journal, Psychosomatic Medicine, for a decade ending in 1982.

"He brought a level of scientific inquiry to the field," said Dr. Michael Irwin, a professor at UCLA's Neuropsychiatric Institute. "He asked, 'How do we set up experiments to evaluate how the brain communicates with the body and how stress impacts health?' That was his stamp."

In the 1950s, Weiner investigated how psychological processes and behavior affected the development of gastric ulcers and other diseases and found that stress was a contributing factor. He later conducted research on the effects of behavior on other illnesses, including peptic ulcers, bronchial asthma and rheumatoid arthritis.
In the 1970s, Weiner was one of the first researchers to report on the behavioral effects of hydrocortisone, a drug commonly used to treat auto-immune disorders such as asthma.

He also was involved in studies that contributed to the development of psychoneuroimmunology, which examines the influence of the brain on the immune system. Among the seminal studies he participated in was one showing how grieving over spouses who died of lung cancer impaired the immune systems of women.
Weiner was also known as an exceptional teacher who trained more than 120 physicians and researchers. According to Irwin, many of his students have won prestigious awards and headed the psychiatry departments of leading universities.
Born in Vienna in 1921 and raised in London, Weiner came to the United States with his family in 1939. He graduated from Harvard College in 1943 and earned his medical degree from Columbia University in 1946.

During the 1950s and '60s he was a researcher at Walter Reed Army Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland, and at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York. From 1969 to 1982, he headed the psychiatry department at Montefiore Hospital and Medical Center in Bronx, New York.

In 1982, he became the chief of behavioral medicine at UCLA and worked at the university's Neuropsychiatric Institute and Brain Research Institute. He retired from UCLA in 2001.

Donald Benjamin Lindsley, co-founder of UCLA’s Brain Research Institute and a pioneer in the study of human brain waves, behavior and information processing, died of natural causes on June 19, 2003, in Santa Monica. He was 95.

Lindsley, a professor of psychology, physiology, and psychiatry at UCLA and member of the National Academy of Sciences, used an interdisciplinary approach in brain-behavior research to provide major contributions to the understanding of normal and abnormal functioning of the brain during sleep-wakefulness, perception, emotion, learning and development.

Allan Tobin, director of the UCLA Brain Research Institute, said, “Don Lindsley's role at UCLA and in international neuroscience in some ways resembled that of the brainstem activating systems, whose understanding he did so much to promote. Don was one of those rare people who continually activated the people around him--students, post-doctoral scholars, and colleagues--focusing attention on what was important, exciting, and relevant to the future.”

Lindsley was one of the first scientists to use the newly-discovered technique of electroencephalography, or “EEG,” to record electrical brain activity. During his postdoctoral studies with Alexander Forbes and Hallowell Davis at Harvard University at the height of the Depression (1933-35), Lindsley himself served as the subject for the premier public demonstration of EEG to the American medical community. He later carried out the initial investigations of changes in the EEG in the developing brain.

In addition to his EEG research, Lindsley was active in developing measures of human sensory processing that used computer-averaged evoked potentials to assess the influence of attentional processes on rapid electrical changes in the brain produced by significant visual effects.

In landmark papers published in 1949-50 with Horace Magoun at Northwestern University, Lindsley helped define the brainstem activating systems which support wakefulness and arousal. He followed this research with significant contributions to knowledge about brain mechanisms underlying emotion and attention.
Lindsley was born in Brownhelm, Ohio and attended nearby Wittenberg College. He earned his Ph.D. in psychology at the University of Iowa with Edward Lee Travis. His uncompromising dedication was evident from the start. He perfected his experimental technique by impaling the muscle of his own leg with needle-type electrodes to record the electrical activity of muscles and nerves before trying the same techniques on research subjects.

His early activities included a trip to Europe in 1931, with visits to various scientific laboratories. A fan of the great jazz trumpeter performer Bix Beiderbecke, Lindsley paid his passage on a ship from the Holland-America Line by playing cornet (trumpet) in a jazz band he formed called “The Four Aces”, with which he toured much of England and France.

After appointments in pediatrics at Western Reserve Medical School in Cleveland (1935-38), psychology at Brown University (1938-1946) and neurophysiology at Bradley Hospital in Providence (1938-1946), Lindsley became professor of psychology at Northwestern University (1946-1951).

Magoun, who moved from Evanston, recruited Lindsley to UCLA’s new medical school in 1951. With fellow professor Charles “Tom” Sawyer, they commuted three times a week along the old Pacific Coast Highway from Santa Monica to makeshift labs at the Long Beach Veterans Administration campus until the medical and health sciences research center was built in Westwood. This trio joined with John Douglas French and Theodore Bullock to found UCLA’s world-renowned Brain Research Institute in 1959.

In the same year, Lindsley was awarded the Distinguished Scientific Award from the American Psychological Association, for his research on the “psychological variables associated with the reticular activating system…based on interdisciplinary research in which he played an important part. Dr. Lindsley has shown great skill not only in both neurophysiology and in psychology, but also in his unusual insight into the relationships between these two areas.”

In 1960, while he chaired the department of psychology, Lindsley was selected by his peers and delivered the UCLA Faculty Research Lecture on “Brain Development and Behavior.” His retirement in 1977 was celebrated by a major conference on “Neurophysiology and Psychology: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Applications.” Later accolades included the Society for Neuroscience’s prestigious Ralph Gerard Prize for Distinguished Contributions to Neuroscience in 1988.

Lindsley always trained a participant-observer’s eye on documenting the history of his discipline and its practitioners. His film, “Psychologists Here, There, and Everywhere,” is a moving-picture record of hundreds of scientists—ordinary as well as eminent—in action at the annual professional meetings of the American Psychological Association from 1946-1957. With his subsequent voice-added anecdotes, it is an often-requested classic at the University of Akron’s Archives of American Psychology. He recently donated his lifelong accumulation of papers, letters, and meticulously-identified photographs to UCLA’s Neuroscience History Archives.

Lindsley was elected to the Society for Experimental Psychologists (1942), the National Academy of Sciences (1952), and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1965). Among the numerous professional societies, committees and editorial boards to which he belonged, Lindsley was a charter member of the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) and the Society for Neuroscience, and he served as President of Division 6 (Physiological and Comparative Psychology) of the American Psychological Association (1947) and the American Electroencephalographic Society (1964-65).

The Lindsley Lab at UCLA hosted 84 postdoctoral fellows and visiting scientists from more than 25 countries. Lindsley edited a series of translations of previously inaccessible works by Russian neurophysiologists, thus shepherding some of the first major exchanges of information on brain electrophysiology between the Soviet Union and the United States.

More that anything in his career, including nearly 250 scientific papers, Lindsley took great pride in the 48 Ph.D. aspirants who completed their doctorates under his guidance and mentorship. He continued voluminous typewritten correspondence with most of them as he earnestly followed and advised them in their careers.
The feeling was mutual, as then UCLA Brain Research Institute Director Carmine Clemente noted in 1978: “I have been touched by Don Lindsley’s humane approach to his students, by the friendly twinkle in his eye, and by his uplifting smile,” Clemente said. “Somehow I think that the warm regard held for him by his students means more to him than the honors he has achieved through his work – but he, indeed, has both.”

Lindsley’s commitment to the recognition and advancement of young scientists was memorialized by Albert and Ellen Grass, EEGers whom he had known and with whom he collaborated in the development of electrophysiology since 1935. The Society for Neuroscience, through the support of the Grass Foundation, awards the Donald B. Lindsley Prize each year to the author of the most outstanding PhD thesis in the area of behavioral neuroscience. The fruits of this lasting tribute have been presented to 26 recipients since 1978.

Huda Akil, President of the Society for Neuroscience and Gardner C. Quarton Distinguished Professor of Neurosciences at the University of Michigan, recalls: “I had the great honor of meeting Professor Lindsley when I was a graduate student at UCLA. Having studied his work and being in awe of him, I was surprised by his kindness to a mere student. I then learned of his deep commitment to his students and younger colleagues. It is therefore extremely apt that the Society for Neuroscience honors one of its charter members and a giant in the field of brain research by awarding the Donald B. Lindsley Prize which recognizes scientific talent among young investigators. The Society for Neuroscience mourns the passing of a brilliant scientist and a great man, and will continue to celebrate his spirit through the annual Lindsley Prize.”

Lindsley’s wife of 69 years, Ellen Ford Lindsley, died in November 2002. He is survived by his children, David, Margaret, and Robert Lindsley, all of Santa Monica, and Sara Ellen Lyons of Carpenteria, as well as 6 grandchildren and 7 great-grandchildren.

Louise Hanson Marshall, Ph.D., died July 12, 2004, at the age of 94. As most of you know, Louise was Director Emerita of the UCLA Neuroscience History Archives and has been involved with the BRI since 1975. Louise was a remarkable woman, and her energy and dedication were an inspiration to all who knew her. As Allan Tobin noted in his nomination of Louise for the Women in Neuroscience (WIN) Special Recognition Award, Louise has been a great friend to the neuroscience community both nationally and at UCLA, and she epitomized a spirit of continuing inquiry. 

The Neuroscience History Archives (NHA) began when Louise Marshall and Horace "Tid" Magoun established the Neuroscience History Resource Program (NHRP) at UCLA in 1980, which evolved into the Neuroscience History Archives ( For many years Louise worked full-time as Director of the NHA without taking salary or compensation, out of pure dedication. It was only at the age of 92 that she chose to reduce her work hours and take the role of Director Emerita, turning over the reins to Dr. Joel Braslow. 

Louise's many achievements include the recent publication of American Neuroscience in the Twentieth Century by Horace W. Magoun, which she edited and compiled from Dr. Magoun's papers, and the 1998 publication of Discoveries in the Human Brain: Neuroscience Prehistory, Brain Structure, and Function, co-authored by Louise H. Marshall and Horace W. Magoun. Just before her death, Louise completed a biography of Horace W. Magoun, now in press.

In 2002, Louise was a recipient of the Lifetime Achievement Award from the International Society for the History of the Neurosciences, at the Eighth Annual meeting of the ISHN, held on the UCLA campus. In 2001, Louise was the first recipient of the WIN Special Recognition Award. In the citation accompanying that award, it was noted that she had "...sequentially, three complete scientific careers on top of a rich personal and family life: first, as a physiologist; second, as a facilitator, organizer, and editor of neuroscience and neuroscientists; and third, as an historian of neuroscience. ...because of her contributions to efforts to define and survey the field, launch a professional society (Society for Neuroscience), and document the history of its practitioners, organizations, and ideas, she has truly been a woman in neuroscience." 

Louise received her Ph.D. in Physiology from the University of Chicago in 1935, following undergraduate work at Vassar. She began her career as a research physiologist who taught courses in nutrition, metabolism, and excretion. She took time off to start a family, then joined the NIH wartime Aviation Medicine Unit, followed by twenty years with the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Disorders, working in the field of renal physiology. She joined the National Research Council (NRC) at the National Academy of Sciences in 1965. 

Quoting again from the WIN Special Recognition Award citation, "As the NRC staff officer responsible for the Committee on Brain Sciences, Dr. Marshall was instrumental in helping to shepherd the founding of the Society of Neuroscience and served as its first Secretary-Treasurer and newsletter editor. Under her directorship, the IBRO Survey of Research Facilities and Manpower in Brain Sciences in the United States (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1968) sought to define the nascent field of 'neuroscience' and to determine who was doing what kind of brain and behavior research, and where."

In 1975, Louise joined the UCLA Brain Research Institute as managing editor of the journal Experimental Neurology. After her official "retirement" in 1979, she continued to work for more than twenty years, devoting herself to the field of neuroscience history and to the task of establishing that field as a discipline in itself. As noted in the WIN citation, the SFN's "display of history-themed posters is due in no small part to Dr. Marshall's foresight and persistent example, as well as her unflagging lobbying of the SFN Council for a separate 'History' theme session--at first as a voice in the wilderness trying to promote the production and recognition of high caliber historical research, and finally as one of a growing body of presenters whom the Council acknowledged by creating the 'History of Neuroscience' poster theme."

Through Louise's dedication and leadership, the UCLA Neuroscience History Archives have played a major role in preserving neuroscience history and in educating new generations about the legacy on which the discipline is founded. The NHA responds to inquiries from all over the world, and has created an ongoing heritage documenting the history of neuroscience and the progress of the discipline. The NHA identifies, collects, and preserves primary source materials, assists neuroscientists who seek to have their papers preserved and made available for study, and facilitates neuroscience history research and education.

We will all miss Louise's great spirit as well as her unflagging dedication to neuroscience and the BRI.

Gaylord Ellison died on August 26, 2003. Dr. Frank Krasne, a friend and colleague of Dr. Ellison’s wrote the following note to the Psychology Department about Gaylord.

Gaylord, who retired from the UCLA Department of Psychology several years ago, was for many years an extremely popular undergraduate teacher. He was the recipient of the Department's Distinguished Teaching Award, an inspiring mentor of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows, and an astute commentator and critic at seminars and journal clubs within the department. Gaylord was well known both within and outside of the department for his original and creative approach to research problems. Over the years he researched a variety of different problems within behavioral neuroscience and early in his career at UCLA he and his students did now classical work on brain organization of motivated behavior. He then later became a world leader in examining the consequences for behavior and brain anatomy of prolonged, steady exposure to various psychoactive drugs, finding that such treatments often produced qualitatively different effects than more traditional modes of application. His findings had implications for models of mental illness and for the understanding of drug addiction.


Russell Johnson has been asked by the Committee on Committees and Council of the Society for Neuroscience to serve on the Society's Committee on the History of Neuroscience. The Committee tenure is three years, beginning in November at the Society's 2003 Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA. Congratulations, Russell, on yet another highly visible and responsible position!


The Joint Seminars in Neuroscience (JSN) series will resume Winter quarter, beginning January 13, 2004. A number of outstanding speakers are lined up so mark your calendars and plan to join us every Tuesday at 4:00 p.m. in the Louis Jolyon West Auditorium (C8-183 NPI).

Winter 2004

January 13, 2004 Shou Lin
January 20, 2004 Margaret McCarthy
January 27, 2004 Catherine Woolley
February 3, 2004 Craig Garner
February 10, 2004 Mriganka Sur
February 17, 2004 Harley Kornblum
February 24, 2004 Seth Grant
March 2, 2004 Robert Blanchard
March 9, 2004 UCLA Postdoctoral Fellow
March 16, 2004 H.W. Magoun Lecturer (tentative)

For a list of speakers and the title of their lecture, please visit the BRI website:
The Joint Seminars in Neuroscience are sponsored by The Brain Research Institute and the Neuropsychiatric Institute; co-sponsored by the Interdepartmental Programs for Neuroscience, the Mental Retardation Research Center, and the Departments of Anesthesiology, Neurobiology, Neurology, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Psychology, Physiology, Physiological Science, Ophthalmology, and Surgery/Neurosurgery.


The FPR-UCLA Center for Culture, Brain, and Development (CBD) invites applications for two postdoctoral fellowships and two predoctoral fellowships for study beginning in Fall 2004.

CBD was established with a grant from the Foundation for Psycho-cultural Research. It offers graduate and postdoctoral training in theory and methods integrating research on development, brain function, and cultural processes. CBD fosters training and research on how these three systems affect and depend on each other in normal or pathological conditions. The training programs consist of cross-disciplinary research collaboration or mentoring, attendance at the Forum on Culture, Brain, and Development, and participating in the integrative seminar on Culture, Brain, and Development. Fellows are eligible to apply for small CBD research grants.

Post-doctoral fellows will conduct research and participate in seminars with CBD trainees and faculty in Anthropology, Psychology, Applied Linguistics, Education, Psychiatry, and the Neuroscience program (including the Brain Mapping Center). Primary training or mentoring must be in a field different from the Fellow's Ph.D. field, and trainees should have mentors in at least two of the three program areas. Fellows will receive a stipend of approximately $31,000, plus benefits, along with $3000 in research funds, available by application. They may have opportunities for summer school or other teaching. These fellowships are renewable for a second year, contingent on performance.

Applicants who have their own post-doctoral funding are also invited to apply to participate in the CBD program, and are eligible to apply for the supplemental research funds.

Review of applications for postdocs will begin on February 2, 2004 and continue until the positions are filled. Applicants must have a Ph.D., Ed.D., or M.D. in hand by September 1, 2004. Prospective applicants should contact potential CBD faculty sponsors well in advance of the deadline to formulate research and training plans. Applicants should demonstrate expertise or definite research goals in at least two of the three core areas (culture, brain, and development), have a clearly formulated interest in the third field, and explain exactly why they want further training that integrates these three fields. Applicants may propose specific research projects and must explain why they want to receive training at CBD and work with particular CBD faculty. Applicants should submit a CV, a letter detailing research history and plans, and two or three representative publications, manuscripts, or copies of submitted grant proposals; they should arrange for three or more letters of reference. Materials should be sent to:

CBD Fellowship Committee
Department of Anthropology, UCLA
Box 951553
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1553

(For non-USPS express deliveries, use 341 Haines Hall, 405 Hilgard Avenue). 
For further information about this program and participating faculty, see the CBD website (, contact Tom Weisner, call the CBD office (Andrew Galperin, coordinator) at 310 825-5326, or contact any of the relevant faculty participants listed on the CBD website. (The Foundation for Psycho-cultural Research ( also has a separate but similar program with post-doctoral fellowships that can be used at any university. Contact the FPR separately through their website regarding this program.)

Pre-doctoral Center for Culture, Brain, and Development fellowships are available to graduate students admitted to the UCLA Departments and Programs in Anthropology, Psychology, Applied Linguistics, Education, Psychiatry, and Neuroscience. Applicants MUST apply to one of these programs in the regular way, indicating in their statement of purpose that they would like to participate in CBD and be considered for a CBD Fellowship. Predoctoral fellowships cannot be applied for separately, and are only awarded after a candidate is admitted to one of these UCLA departments. CBD Pre-Doctoral Fellows must have at least two CBD Faculty mentors, at least one of whom must be outside their home department. In addition to fulfilling the requirements for a Ph.D. in their home department, Pre-Doctoral Fellows must take at least one appropriate methodology course in another field and TA at least once in another department. The CBD Pre-Doctoral Fellowship typically covers stipend, tuition and fees for the second year of graduate study, along with a Dissertation Year Fellowship for the final year of graduate training. Support for the first and other years must be provided by the Fellow's home department (some combination of fellowships and teaching assistantships), or by an external fellowship received by the pre-doctoral fellow. Predoctoral trainees are also eligible to apply for and receive small research grants from CBD, whether or not they have a CBD fellowship. The date of closure is at the regular deadline for graduate student applications. 

Graduate students already at UCLA do not need to be funded by CBD in order to participate fully in the CBD training program; any graduate student in the participating departments and programs may apply to join the program, and is eligible to apply for the supplemental research funds.

The Pasteur Foundation sent an announcement requesting applications for the Pasteur Foundation Post-Doctoral Fellowships in December 2003 (also sent as an e-mail in December to the neuroscience community). The deadline is February 6, 2004.

Guidelines and instructions for applying for this fellowship can be found at:

The UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute announced its Funding Opportunities for 2003-2004 (also sent as an e-mail the neuroscience community in December). 
This program funds both investigator-initiated research grants and pre-doctoral and postdoctoral fellowships. Their intent is to facilitate research in areas that materially contribute to effective treatment, prevention and cure of the autism spectrum and other closely related neurodevelopmental disorders, and to foster the development of promising pre-doctoral and postdoctoral students in this important field of study. The submission deadline for the 2003-04competition is February 15, 2004. More detailed information about this program is available on the Institute's web site at under Research and Funding Opportunities.

McKnight Endowment Fund for Neuroscience—Neuroscience of Brain Disorders Awards

The McKnight Endowment Fund for Neuroscience will award $300,000, each over three years, to support six research projects exploring new approaches to diagnosing, preventing, and treating injuries or diseases affecting the brain and spinal cord. The Neuroscience of Brain Disorders Awards will go to U.S. scientists investigating the roots of stroke, epilepsy, sleep disorders, Alzheimer's disease, anxiety disorders, and Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects females.

The Endowment Fund created the Neuroscience of Brain Disorders Awards to support innovative efforts aimed at translating basic laboratory discoveries in neuroscience into clinical benefits for patients. This is the fourth year the awards have been given.

"Neuroscientists are building on new research technologies and medical breakthroughs, particularly in genetics, to advance our understanding of the brain and nervous system," said Larry R. Squire, Ph.D., chair of the awards committee. Dr. Squire is a professor of psychiatry, neurosciences, and psychology at the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, and research career scientist at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego. "As we learn more about the structure and function of the nervous system, potential clinical applications become clearer," he said.

The 2004 awards begin in February. Letters of intent for 2005 awards are due by May 1, 2004. Information and application materials will be available in March 2004

The McKnight Endowment Fund for Neuroscience is an independent organization funded solely by The McKnight Foundation of Minneapolis, Minnesota, and led by a board of prominent neuroscientists from around the country. The McKnight Foundation has supported neuroscience research since 1977. The foundation established the Endowment Fund in 1986 to carry out one of the intentions of founder William L. McKnight (1887-1979). One of the early leaders of the 3M Company, he had a personal interest in memory and its diseases and wanted part of his legacy used to help find cures.

The Endowment Fund makes three types of awards each year. In addition to the Neuroscience of Brain Disorders Awards, they are the McKnight Technological Innovations in Neuroscience Awards, providing seed money to develop technical inventions to advance brain research; and the McKnight Scholar Awards, supporting neuroscientists in the early stages of their research careers.

The Whitehall Foundation --Grants for Research in Neurobiology

The Whitehall Foundation is accepting applications throughout the year for grants to support basic research in neurobiology, especially on how the brain's sensory, motor, and other complex functions relate to behavior. 

Candidates eligible for these grants include tenured or tenure-track professors at accredited American institutions. 

Deadlines for letters of intent to apply are due by January 15, April 15, and October 1; the three deadlines for applications during the year are June 1, September 1, and February 15. 

The total amount to be awarded and number of awards is not specified, however, the amount of individual awards range from $30,000 to $75,000 each year for up to three years. 

View the full text of the announcement on the Foundation's web site:


Carol Moss Spivak Cell Imaging Facility
Confocal Microscopy
For information, contact: 
Dr. Matt Schibler X59783

Electron Microscopy and Specimen Preparation
For information, contact:
Brigitta Sjostrand X68054

Microscopic Techniques and Histological Preparation
For information, contact:
Sharon Sampogna X59848

Other Cores:
Pasarow Mass Spectrometry Laboratory
For information, contact:
Dr. Kym Faull X67881


Postmortem Human Frozen Brain Tissue and Matched Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) and Blood are Available for Scientists to Search for Etiopathogeneses of Human Disease.

The National Neurological Research Specimen Bank and the Multiple Sclerosis Human Neurospecimen Bank, located at VA West Los Angeles Healthcare Center, maintains a collection of quick frozen and formalin fixed postmortem human brain tissue and frozen cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with neurological diseases (including Alzheimer's Disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, depressive disorder/suicide, epilepsy, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, schizophrenia, stroke/CVA and other less common diseases). Full inventory is available upon request. Diagnoses are documented by clinical medical records and gross/microscopic neuropathology.
Special features of the Bank are as follows: 

1). Serial digital images of coronal sections (7 mm thick and obtained before quick freezing) are available for selecting samples to be studied.
2). Microscopic neuropathology is available on each dissected sample and the dissected sample's localization is sketched on the gross coronal section image from which it came.
3). Plaques of demyelination are classified as active, chronic active or inactive, and a shipment includes adjacent normal appearing white and nearby gray matter from the same case (they serve as a type of control).
4). Ice artifact is minimized and it does not interfere with in situ hybridization or in situ PCR or immunocytochemistry.
5). Tissue samples have been used for harvesting enough mRNA for microarray assay plates.
6). CSF cells and cell-free CSF are available pre- and postmortem as is serum, plasma and buffy coats. They are stored quick frozen (full inventory is available upon request).

The Bank is supported by NIH (NINCDS/NIMH), the National Multiple Sclerosis Society and Veterans Affairs West Los Angeles Healthcare Center.
For further information on tissues/CSF available and how to access them, contact:

Wallace W. Tourtellotte, M.D., Ph.D.
Neurology Research (127A)
VA West Los Angeles Healthcare Center
11301 Wilshire Blvd
Los Angeles, CA 90073
(310) 268_4638; fax: (310) 268_4638
web site:

Alzheimer's Disease Brain Tissue and CSF

The Neuropathology Laboratory at UCLA Medical Center maintains a bank of frozen, formalin and paraformaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded postmortem human brain tissues and frozen cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients who die with Alzheimer's disease and other dementing and degenerative illnesses (including progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease, fronto-temporal dementia), as well as control materials removed in a similar fashion from patients who are neurologically normal. Tissues are maintained as part of the NIA-funded Neuropathology Core functions of the UCLA Alzheimer's Disease Center. These tissues/fluids are available as a resource to investigators in any discipline. Pilot studies using the tissues/CSF to examine biomolecules that are of known importance in animal models and suspected significance in human neurodegenerative conditions are particularly encouraged. Every attempt will be made to provide research materials for worthwhile projects in a timely fashion. For further information on tissues/CSF available and how to access them, contact:

Dr. Harry Vinters
Section of Neuropathology
UCLA Medical Center, CHS 18-170
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1732
Phone: 310-825-6191; Fax: 310-206-8290


The BRI regularly receives letters and resumes from people looking for work in the field of neuroscience. Below is an abbreviated list of the candidates and the type of work they seek. Copies of their resumes are often available in our editorial office. If you are interested in one or more of these individuals, please contact them directly, or call x56055

Elisabeth Malin is looking for a research position in one of several fields. She is interested in, and has the most experience in, clinical research, however is specifically interested in working on diseases/disorders including Parkinson’s, Schizophrenia, Epilepsy, and Brain Tumors. She would like to find a position that integrates both neuroscience and clinical research. 

Elizabeth is a recent graduate of the UCLA where she majored in neuroscience. Her clinical research experience includes running the full battery of neuropsychological tests and scoring them; recruiting and screening participants; handling blood and urine samples for later testing; data entry and some analysis; taking/monitoring vital signs and EKGs; running participants through infusion days; maintaining research databases; as well as extensive experience working with the GCRC and IRB. She has strong interpersonal skills working with drug addicts, a demonstrated reliability at work, the ability to work effectively with other staff members, and a careful attention to detail for test administration. She has strong skills in communicating with persons of various social, cultural, economic, and educational backgrounds, and maintains the confidentiality of subjects.

As an undergraduate, Elisabeth has run her own project looking at serotonergic differences in MDMA, with minimal supervision. Currently she is continuing that project, as well as working together with other research assistants in the Neuropsychiatric Hospital on different clinical studies monitoring the safety of study medications for addiction. She has some experience working with rats, handling them, giving injections, and has observed surgery, and is willing to work with animals now. She is proficient working with the Windows platform and Macs, with Microsoft word, Excel, and Powerpoint, and SPSS.

Elisabeth is looking for a full-time position as an SRA or Lab Technician which will allow her to utilize her education and practical experience in a laboratory setting.
Michael Pakdaman would like to obtain a research position. He is a UCLA graduate with a B.S. in cybernetics, specializing in bioinformatics. He will be applying to medical school in June 2004 for entrance August 2005, possibly in an M.D./Ph.D program. He hopes to spend the next two years before medical school working full-time in a lab in the School of Medicine.

Michael’s long-term goal is to practice medicine in a clinical and clinical research setting. His research experience up to now has been focused on lab techniques and assisting in projects. He has learned many of the basic techniques of DNA extraction and DNA, RNA, and protein blotting in the laboratories of Drs. Silva, Mischel, and Wu. Although he may need some “freshening up,” he feels he is ready for a full-time position in a lab where he can be a key member working independently on projects. He is ready to dedicate the next two years to full-time research and feels he would be an excellent addition to any lab. If you would like to speak with Michael, please contact him directly via e-mail at:


Neuroscience News serves as the primary vehicle for disseminating information to the UCLA neuroscience community. It is published solely on the Brain Research Institute’s web site and distributed to the BRI Calendar E-mail list. Please submit all information to the BRI editorial office, E-mail, or call extension 56055 or 55061.

Editor: Linda Maninger